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5 Ways US States Can Get More Electric School Buses on the Road

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This is the first article in a three-part series examining the ways stakeholders — including state policymakers, school districts, and electric utilities — can build on recent federal actions to accelerate the equitable transition to electric school buses across the U.S.

Originally published on WRI’s Resource Institute.
By Katrina McLaughlin and Justin Balik 

The recent enactment of the bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act in the United States is an important step on the path to cleaner school bus rides for the more than 20 million children who rely on an iconic yellow bus every day and a chance for states to follow with bold action.

The new law makes an unprecedented investment in electric school buses (ESBs), appropriating $2.5 billion to help school districts adopt zero-emission school buses, such as ESBs, and another $2.5 billion toward zero- and low-emission school buses — which includes both ESBs and alternative fuel vehicles.

Under the new Clean School Bus Program, to run between 2022 and 2026, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will cover up to 100% of the costs of replacing existing school buses, including vehicles and charging or fueling infrastructure. It’s critical that the EPA use the flexibility provided by Congress to prioritize electric school buses over alternative fuel vehicles under the second portion of the program.

The Clean School Bus Program offers a bold new effort to begin phasing out diesel school buses, which account for 95% of the U.S. fleet. Diesel school buses contribute to climate change and expose children, drivers, and the surrounding community to unhealthy levels of air pollution, with impacts on health and learning.

Moreover, traditionally underserved communities — including communities of color and low-income communities — are more likely to rely on school buses for transporting their children to school and to suffer from vehicle-based air pollution. And according to one analysis, federal investment through the Clean School Bus Program could also provide major economic benefits, including creating approximately 46,000 job-years.

Although the Clean School Bus Program is the largest amount of funding ever established to electrify school buses, this investment is still not enough to transition the entire fleet of 480,000 school buses to electric vehicles — especially when each electric bus currently costs school districts more than three times their diesel counterparts. States will play a critical role in bridging the current upfront cost gap.

A Critical Time for All States to Act

The year ahead presents a unique opportunity for states to focus on equitable school bus electrification. Federal grant programs often reward applicants that leverage other funding. This makes 2022 the perfect time for states to invest their own resources in electric school buses by providing incentives, financing, technical assistance and regulatory support.

The good news, outlined in a previous WRI article, is that many school districts are already working to electrify their school buses, and as of August 2021 33 states have at least one ESB announced, procured, delivered or in operation. Now, it’s time for all U.S. states to get onboard and move to scale.

Interactive version of this map available here.

How States Can Bring the Benefits of Electric School Buses to Their Communities

Here are five specific ways that state leaders can position their school districts for a successful, equitable transition to electric school buses:

1. Set Ambitious Goals and Build a Supportive Policy Environment

Policymakers should consider how electric school buses fit within a state’s broader transportation electrification goals. On the regulatory and legislative fronts, states can set targets that help propel the market forward.

State policymakers should move immediately to adopt California’s Advanced Clean Trucks rule (ACT), which includes school buses. The ACT sets increasing zero-emission vehicle sales requirements for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle (MHDV) manufacturers beginning in 2024. Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oregon and Washington adopted the rule in 2021, and more states are considering adoption in 2022.

State adoption of the ACT will bring cleaner air to impacted communities while bringing zero-emission trucks and buses to scale. Adopting the ACT is an important first step to codifying the goals of a memorandum-of-understanding signed by 16 states and the District of Columbia.

This agreement established a shared goal of cleaning up MHDV fleets, including school buses, by reaching 30% zero-emission MHDV sales by 2030 and 100% zero-emission MHDV sales by 2050. In addition to these efforts on new sale requirements, state leaders should review procurement laws and other state regulations and modify them as needed to bolster ESB deployment.

Within these broader transportation electrification efforts, school buses offer a promising ground and a place to move more quickly, as over 90% of school bus routes can be served with today’s electrification technology. ESB deployment can be a catalyst for broader MHDV electrification and a down payment towards cleaning up the entire sector.

Recognizing this potential, Governor Kathy Hochul recently announced a nation-leading proposal for New York, aiming to achieve the electrification of the state’s entire school bus fleet by 2035. If enacted, it would represent the first statewide transition plan to achieve a 100% ESB fleet in the country.

2. Provide Dedicated Upfront Funding

States have already awarded over $480 million in funding for electric school buses and infrastructure, including approximately $180 million in 28 states through Volkswagen (VW) settlement funds. These VW settlement funds make up over one third of state public funding for electric school buses allocated to date and are the primary source of state funding for ESBs in most states. In 2021, updates to state spending plans for VW settlement funds allocated significant amounts to ESBs, including $33.6 million in Illinois, up to $27.2 million in North Carolina, $20 million in Virginia and $13 million in New Jersey.

However, VW settlement funds are a one-time funding source that many states have already exhausted or will soon deplete. Additional new sources of funding are needed to support school districts and school transportation providers to cover the cost of new ESBs while the market continues to mature and until total cost of ownership parity is achieved.

Supportive financing options, including through state green banks, are also critical parts of the funding and financing landscape that can help school districts leverage the lower operational and maintenance costs of ESBs. Funding and financing options for school districts will be further discussed in an upcoming WRI article. States should dedicate a significant amount of funding to electric school buses, with at least 40% of this funding supporting ESB deployment in traditionally underserved communities (such as low-income communities, communities of color, Indigenous communities, and communities facing disproportionate air pollution).

California currently offers the most robust state funding for ESBs through its Hybrid and Zero-Emission Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Program. The state is allocating $130 million exclusively for electric school buses in 2022.

States should put in place generous incentives now to increase uptake and phase them out over the next few years as the market matures, production increases and prices decline. For example, Colorado Governor Jared Polis recently proposed a new six-year $150 million program for school bus electrification. The budget proposal, if approved, would secure the full funding amount this year, which would allow for effective long-term planning and program design. If the full funding amount is appropriated this legislative session, it would allow for the possibility that the incentives could be front-loaded to build increased demand and drive uptake, and then phase down the incentives gradually. Starting out with more generous funding levels that gradually phase down also sends a signal to school districts that it’s fiscally prudent to start electrifying their fleets immediately.

3. Incorporate Technical Assistance and Workforce Development Strategies

States should also provide technical assistance to school districts as they manage the transition of their fleets. School districts are navigating an unprecedented pandemic and managing the educational needs of their students during a challenging time — they will need guidance with this new transportation option and its complexities. States are well-positioned to step in and offer that guidance to school district staff and should incorporate technical assistance and proactive engagement to ensure program success.

New York recently launched a new Green Schools Initiative to assist schools on clean energy and energy efficiency initiatives with a focus on disadvantaged communities. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, this is a promising model that should also be applied to transportation electrification. Technical assistance should focus on both the nuts and bolts of implementation as well as assistance accessing all available funding sources.

Supporting school district staff and drivers must also be part of this technical assistance. The California Energy Commission’s Clean Transportation Program invests directly in workforce development and training entities to expand their current services and develop new programming specifically tailored to zero-emission vehicles.

States need to consider how best to prepare their workforce to thrive as the electric school bus industry continues to evolve including supporting programs at community colleges and investing in historically underserved communities.

4. Ensure Electric Utility Programs Adequately and Equitably Invest in Charging Infrastructure

State public utility commissions which regulate investor-owned electric distribution utilities have a key role to play in supporting ESB adoption and ensuring a fair and cost-effective transition. This includes oversight of utility rates, transportation electrification planning, and authorization of make-ready infrastructure programs for ESBs.

State regulators should use these authorities to support school bus electrification. Transitioning to electric school buses has the potential to provide benefits to the grid, in addition to reducing harmful emissions from diesel buses.

Some utility programs may view ESBs as grid assets offering the potential for load management to avoid high-cost system peaks and to better allow for the integration of renewable energy generation. These programs may allow ESBs to be used as distributed energy resources or managed load assets. When establishing utility electric school bus programs, regulators should consider best practices for rate design that limit increased costs and maximize equitable outcomes.

Public utilities commissions can explore these topics through open dockets and technical workshops. These proceedings may evaluate rate structures and equity considerations when electrifying MHDVs, potential emissions benefits, and promising use cases for Vehicle Grid Integration.

One example is the Illinois Commerce Commission, which is assessing transportation electrification opportunities through a series of open workshops as directed under the Climate and Equity Jobs Act.

5. Incorporate Equity into All Aspects of ESB Program Design and Implementation

It is essential that all the above approaches place equity and environmental justice at the forefront. ESBs represent an opportunity to address the disproportionate burden of pollution experienced by people in traditionally underserved communities across the U.S.

Equity should be incorporated into all facets of state ESB policy, programs and outcomes, including procedural equity that centers community input into program design, as well as distributional equity that ensures that disproportionately impacted communities and students in underserved districts receive sufficient funding and technical assistance.

One state that is leading the way on this front is New Jersey. The State Senate just passed legislation that would bolster and expand electric school bus grants administered by the Department of Environmental Protection. At least half of the grants would be awarded to school districts serving low-income or environmental justice communities.

Examples of Recent State Legislative Activity on Electric School Buses

Governors and state legislatures across the country are prioritizing electric school buses and in 2021, bills involving electric school buses were introduced in at least 11 states. Four of these bills were passed and signed into law. In the table below we share examples that illustrate a range of state legislative approaches.

Illustrative Examples of State Legislation on Electric School Buses

Policy approach
Description
Example 2021 Legislation
State-administered ESB program
Establishes state grant or voucher programs administered by a state agency. May be a separate electric school bus program or integrated into existing program.
S4077 New Jersey;

HB 2118 Virginia

Utility ESB investment program
Establishes programs within state public utility commissions authorizing investor-owned utility programs. Key decision points include determining which expenses are eligible to be rate-based. If Vehicle Grid Integration is a component of the program, these proposals may specify whether the utility or school district owns the bus and/or battery.
HB 832 Maryland;

SB 1380 Virginia

Broader utility electrification transportation planning
Incorporates ESBs into broader utility electrification planning proposals, which may in turn be included as part of larger climate, clean energy, and transportation bills. These bills typically require utilities to submit transportation electrification investment plans and may also require public utility commissions to study or recommend best practices for rate design and use cases.
SB 21-260 Colorado;

SB 448 Nevada; Public Act 102-0662 Illinois

Sales tax, loan terms, and tax exemptions
Lowers the financial cost of ESBs by exempting school districts from certain costs associated with ESBs, including sales tax on a purchased bus or use tax on transportation fuel. These modifications may be made through amendments to existing education statutes or state education aid reimbursements.
S5268 New York; HB 2184 Oregon
Public fleet electrification
Requires public fleets within a state to electrify. May be targeted only at school districts or include all public fleets including transit and state government fleets.
LD 1579 Maine; S.2255 Massachusetts
Green schools
May address multiple elements of reducing energy usage at public schools, including installing renewable energy, building energy efficiency upgrades, and school bus electrification.
H942 North Carolina;

HB 4120 Texas

Note: Bolded text indicates bills that have been passed and enacted into law.

With a wide range of electric school bus policy and program options available, and a unique opportunity to leverage an historic federal investment, states have an unprecedented window in 2022 to accelerate an equitable transition to electric school buses. Now is the time for states to create new jobs, combat climate change and deliver cleaner commutes for kids.

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The Solid-State Energy Storage Dam Is About to Bust Wide Open

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New solid state lithium-ion energy storage technology is still in the R&D phase, and it has already attracted EV manufacturers who love the idea of packing more muscle into smaller spaces while saving on weight, improving performance, and enhancing their safety profile, too. Now it looks like the stationary storage field is also coming over to the solid-state side, too.

QuantumScape Is On A Solid-State Energy Storage Tear

For those of you new to the topic, conventional lithium-ion batteries are based on a liquid electrolyte, which can be a bit testy unless properly engineered.

One emerging solution is to ditch the liquid electrolyte altogether in favor of a solid material, such as a specialized ceramic. The solid-state approach is also a tricky one, but one of the scientists pursuing the solid-state unicorn is famed University of Texas researcher John Goodenough, who is widely credited with inventing the rechargeable lithium-ion technology of today, and that is a pretty good indicator of the quality of the research in that direction.

Solid-state battery materials were a known thing by the early 19th century, but commercial interest in solid-state batteries didn’t really pick up a head of steam until 2020, when the idea took off like a rocket in the electric vehicle field.

The solid-state battery firm QuantumScape currently cites relationships with three automakers, including Volkswagen Group. The two companies began collaborating on solid-state EV batteries in 2015.

They have upped the ante since then, with plans in the works for a pilot manufacturing facility in Germany. In a recent letter to shareholders, QauntumScape described the battery manufacturing plan and issued a progress report on its four-layer solid-state cells, with each layer consisting of “a cathode, a solid-state separator, and an in-situ formed lithium-metal anode.”

Next Steps For Solid-State Energy Storage

QauntumScape is not letting the energy storage grass grow under its feet. Last week the company announced an agreement with the leading energy technology company Fluence, which is the first non-automotive partnership for its lithium-metal battery technology.

That’s a significant development, considering that as recently as last summer the market analyst IDTechEx was assuming that electric vehicles would lead the demand for solid-state batteries, followed by smart phones. Stationary storage could skip right over both of their heads in short order.

“The strategic relationship brings together two companies leading in technology innovation focused on accelerating clean energy adoption and reducing global carbon emissions,” QuantumScape enthuses. “The companies will collaborate on what they believe to be a first-of-its-kind solution to incorporate QuantumScape’s battery technology into Fluence stationary energy storage products as specific technical and commercial milestones are met.”

The two firms are eyeballing a hot growth rate for stationary energy storage in the coming years. Fluence already has a track record in deploying energy storage to improve transmission networks and replace new gas peaker plants, so look for the partners to zero in on those areas as well as others.

As a partner company that links Siemens and the utility AES, Fluence is in a good position to speed those lithium-metal batteries to market whenever they come rolling off the assembly line.

More Solid-State Batteries For More EVs

Meanwhile, last spring Ford and BMW also hooked up to the solid-state battery train last year. Mercedes-Benz and Stellantis caught the solid-state bug, too. GM dropped a hint about its future solid-state battery ambitions last month when it formed a partnership with the Korean firm POSCO Chemical. Toyota and Hyundai are also reported to be on board.

That’s an awfully big field of energy storage players scrambling for technology that probably won’t hit the market until 2025. However, it does give the R&D folks time to work out any remaining kinks.

One especially interesting development recently popped up in a study published in the journal Nature, which describes a “a class of elastomeric solid-state electrolytes with a three-dimensional interconnected plastic crystal phase.” The new electrolytes demonstrate “a combination of mechanical robustness, high ionic conductivity, low interfacial resistance and high lithium-ion transference number” along with “a powerful strategy for enabling stable operation of high-energy, solid-state lithium batteries.”

The research is a collaboration between the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and the Georgia Institute of Technology.

In a press release on the new study, GIT explains that elastomers are common synthetic rubbers. Rubber is not the first material that comes to mind when the topic turns to next-generation energy storage materials, but the research team gave their elastomer a high tech twist that transformed it into a “superhighway for fast lithium-ion transport with superior mechanical toughness, resulting in longer charging batteries that can go farther.”

“The key breakthrough was allowing the material to form a three-dimensional interconnected plastic crystal phase within the robust rubber matrix. This unique structure has resulted in high ionic conductivity, superior mechanical properties and electrochemical stability,” explains GIT.

The new electrolytes prevent the lithium dendrite growth that bedevils their liquid counterparts. GIT also notes that fabricating the new electrolyte is a relatively simple, low temperature process that yields a high quality result.

But…What About The Lithium?

Yes, what about it? EV supply chain observers have been watching the lithium supply chain like a hawk. The general consensus is that there needs to be a serious uptick in availability as the energy storage market takes off.

Solid-state technology can assist, partly by introducing more robust batteries with a longer lifecycle, and by decluttering the recycling pathway. However, the global lithium supply chain still has to pump itself up as the demand for batteries accelerates.

Lithium mining and brine extraction are two solutions at hand, but they can easily run afoul of environmental and cultural preservation goals. A more promising area of lithium R&D is geothermal extraction without the use of large evaporation lagoons.

Last June our friends over at the US Department of Energy produced a blueprint for lithium supply in the US and noted that “The worldwide lithium-battery market is expected to grow by a factor of 5 to 10 in the next decade.”

“The U.S. industrial base must be positioned to respond to this vast increase in market demand that otherwise will likely benefit well-resourced and supported competitors in Asia and Europe,” they added.

Game on!

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EVs Beat Diesels As Electric Car Sales Ramp up in Europe

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Auto analyst Mathias Schmidt tells the Financial Times that sales of battery-electric cars in Europe and the UK were higher than sales of diesel-powered cars for the first time in December. “The diesel death march has been playing on repeat since September 2015 when ‘Dieselgate’ was first unveiled — causing VW to draw up the first plans of the ID.3 within 30 days of the scandal coming to light,” he said. The December data indicates 176,000 battery electric vehicles were sold in December — 6% more than in December, 2020 — as opposed to 160,000 diesels.

The Financial Times goes to some lengths to point out to its readers that the boom in electric cars is largely attributable to generous government subsidies and draconian emissions rules that force manufacturers to build low and zero emissions cars. That approach, of course, is anathema to “free market” advocates. If it weren’t for the fact that the world is hurtling toward a climate catastrophe of unimaginable proportions, such market machinations might be condemned and rightfully so.

The Financial Times reports the German government is about to revisit the wisdom of tax credits for diesel fuel that make it 14 cents per liter cheaper than premium gasoline. The love affair with diesel in Europe began after the OPEC oil embargoes in the 1970s.

Diesel engines do squeeze more miles out of a gallon of fuel than gasoline engines, and so there was a reason to promote the sale of diesel-powered vehicles at that time. The mechanism most countries chose was to increase taxes on gasoline and decrease taxes on diesel fuel. The justification for doing that has long since evaporated, however.

According to SwissInfo, sales of electric vehicles — including plug-in hybrids and conventional hybrids — reached a “tipping point” in 2021, particularly at the end of the year. For the period from September to November, fully electric vehicles accounted for 18.3% of new registrations. Including plug-in hybrids, that figure rose to 28% according to the Touring Club Switzerland. The Tesla Model 3 leads all other EV models in sales in Switzerland. The Volkswagen ID.3 is in second place, with less than half as many cars sold.

“Given the ongoing technological advancements, increased social acceptance and the ever-increasing choice of electric vehicle models, the development of electromobility is progressing faster than expected. The 50%-mark for fully electric vehicles, which most experts expected only around 2030, should therefore be reached significantly faster than expected,” TCS said.

While Switzerland’s EV charging infrastructure is on par with that in other European countries — a total of 8,497 public charging stations were available across Switzerland as of the end of 2021 — there are still too few chargers available for apartment dwellers and those who park on the street. “The hurdles for home charging are still too high for tenants, owners of apartments and residents who park on the streets,” says Krispin Romang, managing director of the Swiss eMobility association.

Switzerland is implementing new laws designed to slash carbon emissions by 50% in 2030 as compared to 1990. They include tightening tailpipe emission standards to make them similar to those imposed by the EU. Fines imposed by the new law will be used to pay for charging infrastructure upgrades.

The Takeaway

The Financial Times may harrumph about government subsidies and regulations, but they are working. If they smack of socialism to some, so be it. Socialism is preferable to extinction any day.

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Extreme E Sustainability Award Goes to Team X44 (Video)

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X44 have become the first winners of the Extreme E Sustainability Award after topping the standings in the series’ inaugural Count Us In Challenge. The Extreme E Count Us In Challenge is a simple way for people to take practical and impactful steps that reduce their carbon footprint — and challenge governments, cities, and businesses to accelerate progress on climate action.

Extreme E aims to accelerate the adoption of clean and electrified transport to help protect people and the planet, with the Extreme E Count Us In Challenge also supporting the UN’s Race To Zero campaign. Race to Zero is a global campaign to rally leadership and support from businesses, cities, regions, investors for a healthy, resilient, zero carbon recovery that prevents future threats, creates decent jobs, and unlocks inclusive, sustainable growth.

Extreme E is a challenging racing expedition, a global odyssey, taking 100% electric SUVs to extreme environments. They have a single goal in mind — to highlight the destruction of our planet and to inspire people, companies, and locations to urgently change course and go on the positive journey we must all take. The racing series hopes to inspire everyone to change course for the good of our home planet.

Fans vote for the Extreme E Sustainability Award by supporting their favorite team through making healthier lifestyle choices for themselves and the planet. They set up a profile with Count Us In to keep track of the carbon they are saving. The tracking also adds steps to all the steps people make on the Extreme E platform.

Alejandro Agag, founder and CEO of Extreme E, congratulated X44 as the winners of the Extreme E Sustainability Award via the series’ first-ever Count Us In Challenge. “Sport is an incredible platform to not only raise awareness of the climate crisis,” Agag said, “the single biggest threat to our planet today, but also inspire action to tackle it. At Extreme E we will continue to push the boundaries and shine a spotlight on the issues we face, along with the need to act now to help protect our futures.”

Lewis Hamilton, founder of X44, explained that Extreme E, as a new sustainability initiative, “brings my vision for a more sustainable and equal world to life. Extreme E really appealed to me because of its environmental focus. Every single one of us has the power to make a difference, and it means so much to me that I can use my love of racing, together with my love for our planet, to have a positive impact.”

Fan support for X44 through the Extreme E Sustainability Award must come as solace to Hamilton, who lost the Formula 1 driving championship in 2021 when the FIA chose the final race and title winner. Mercedes conceded that “it’s going to take a long time for us to digest” the Formula 1 end-of-2021 season results, revealing that “we will never overcome the pain and the distress” that the final lap decisions caused.

What’s Behind the Extreme E Sustainability Award

Motor racing is a constant hub of transport innovation, and Extreme E represents the latest clean technology, running X Prixs in some of Earth’s most remote and stunning locations while raising awareness for the climate crisis. Extreme E and Count Us In joined forces ahead of Season 1 to launch the Extreme E Count Us In Challenge — a campaign using the power of sport and the excitement of motor racing to inspire fans to take practical steps on climate change. The sport for purpose series asked fans to take real pledges to lead a less carbon intensive lifestyle to reduce their carbon footprint.

The Extreme E Count Us In Challenge includes a variety of actions available to fans to contribute towards a greener future, including not using single-use plastic, walking and cycling more, eating more plant-based foods and driving an electric vehicle. Each step is attributed to the fans’ favorite team, and the team with the most steps at the end of Season 1 would win the inaugural Extreme E Sustainability Award.

The specific steps that Extreme E recommends to its fans are:

Drive electric: Make your next vehicle purchase electric.
Fly less: Reduce your air travel to dramatically reduce your carbon pollution.
Grow some trees: Grow trees to capture and store carbon.
Speak up at work: Come together with colleagues to make change at a bigger scale.
Volunteer: Donate your time and skills.
Dial it down: Turn down the heating in your home by a degree or two.
Switch your home: Move your home to a green energy supplier.
Tell your politicians: Ask your politicians to act or invest in infrastructure to support a step.
Cut food waste: Reduce the amount of food that is wasted or thrown away in your home.
Eat sustainable fish: Eat sustainably sourced fish.
Drink tap water: Stop buying bottled water.
Walk and cycle more: Travel by foot or bike whenever possible.
Talk to friends: Start a conversation about Count Us In and encourage others to take a step.
Buy sustainable palm oil: Look for products that use sustainable palm oil.
Use less plastic: Make plastic-free choices to reduce carbon pollution.
Eat more plants: Reduce the amount of meat in your daily diet.

The greatest fan support for the Count Us In Challenge was achieved by X44, who claimed the Award with 792 steps pledged, with JBXE (749 steps), and Rosberg X Racing (RXR) (422 steps) completing the top three. In total, the Extreme E Count Us In Challenge inspired 1,231 fans to take 3,207 steps saving 1,241,223 KG CO2.

Final Thoughts

Extreme E will continue on to Season 2 to go further in taking climate action and increasing fan interest in the Count Us In Challenge. In 2022, Extreme E will continue to race across the world’s most remote environments to demonstrate the performance and benefits of electric vehicles and clean technology, while highlighting the impact that climate change is already having on these ecosystems, such as melting ice caps, deforestation, desertification, retreating mountain glaciers, and rising sea levels.

Sébastien Loeb, X44, said: “I was very happy to learn that X44 won the Extreme E Sustainability Award for 2021. I joined the team hoping to discover more about the environment while doing what I love, and I have learned so much from the series and the different places we visited — in fact, I even bought my first electric car last year! To know that our fans have come on this journey with us and are making their own commitment to have a positive impact on the planet is inspiring, and I feel good about what we can achieve when we work together.”

When teams and fans take meaningful, simple steps in their own daily lives, they not only reduce their own carbon emissions — they’re added to a growing movement of people and communities showing leaders it’s time to accelerate progress on climate action.

Extreme E Season 2 begins in Neom, Saudi Arabia (19-20 February), before heading to Sardinia, Italy (7-8 May), Senegal or Scotland (9-10 July), Antofagasta, Chile (10-11 September), and Punta Del Este, Uruguay (26-27 November).

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